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Buck Converter Design with component selection

1 Introduction A buck converter is the most basic SMPS topology. It is widely used throughout the industry to convert a higher input voltage into a lower output voltage. The buck converter (voltage step-down converter) is a nonisolated converter, hence galvanic isolation between input and output is not given. 

2 Buck topology The buck converter (Figure 2.1 (Buck Converter – Basic Diagram) ) is the most popular topology used to distribute power in complex systems, e.g. server motherboards, broadband communication boards, etc. It provides the required local voltage from a higher voltage bus that is common to multiple converters in the system. The converter itself consists of one active switch controlled by an IC, a rectifier and filter elements. This great simplicity allows for cost effective high efficient power distribution throughout the application. The buck converter has the filter inductor on the output side, which provides a smooth continuous output current waveform to the load. This could be considered a qualitative benefit but requires special considerations for big load transients. The input is exposed to the switch S1. Therefore the input current is a highly dynamic waveform. This is undesired as the switched current emits noise into the entire system. A proper decoupling is inevitable. That is why capacitor C1 is a crucial part of the topology.

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